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Recent developments In the study of Russian America: Examples from Alaska

J. David McMahan

As Russians ventured eastward from Siberia into Alaska in search of furs, they left behind material evidence of their activities and settlements. The material culture of Russia's colonial American outposts, often superimposed over remnants of earlier Native culture, has not been studied to the same extent as that of similarly-aged British, American, and Spanish sites in North America. 

Each new excavation in Alaska brings insights and surprises that shape our thoughts on life in the settlements. The archaeological record of 18th—19th century Russian America, intertwined with elements of indigenous culture, compliments and enriches the oral and written record. In Alaska, excavations at Castle Hill (Sitka, formerly New Archangel) revealed the buried ruins of an early 19th century workshop complex and living quarters. The study of more than 300,000 artifacts from this former capitol of Russian America has caused archaeologists to re-examine prior concepts of daily life in the settlement. In 2004, the shipwreck of the Kad'yak, off Kodiak Island, was investigated by a joint team of state, federal, and academic scientists. It is the only Russian-American Company vessel yet discovered and the oldest discovered shipwreck in Alaska waters. Its study also constitutes the first substantive underwater archaeological project in Alaska. Evolving technologies, such as global information system (GIS) and methods for non-destructive chemical tests on artifacts, have enhanced the archaeological data potential of these historical sites. To better understand the material culture of Russian sites in Alaska, archaeologists have also collaborated with Russian colleagues to conduct work on similarly aged sites in central Siberia. This has included work at the Tal'tsinka glass factory on the Talci Museum grounds, the former headquarters building of the Russian-American Company in Irkutsk, the site of the 1674 Tunkinsky Ostrog on the Irkut River, and most recently at the old «tea exchange» in Kiakhta. The archaeological work has been complimented by cultural activities and international conferences in Irkutsk in 2007 and Kiakhta in 2009.

CASTLE HILL

The rocky promontory called Castle Hill, and known to the Tlingit Indians as Noow Tlein, is one of Alaska's most important historical sites. At the time of first European contact in the late 18th century, houses of the Kiksa'adi Clan of the Tlingit Indians occupied the hill. 

In 1799, the Russian-American Company constructed a fortified settlement about seven miles north of Castle Hill at a location now known as "old Sitka". In 1802, several Tlingit clans united to destroy the Russian settlement and kill most of its inhabitants. In 1804, a Russian force led by Alexander Baranov and assisted by Naval Captain Lisiansky returned to Sitka. Following a battle and seige, the Russians founded the settlement of New Archangel (now called Sitka) on and around Castle Hill. This settlement served as the colonial capital of Russian America from 1808 until the U.S. purchased Alaska in 1867. From the Russian-American Company headquarters building on Castle Hill, the chief administrator or «governor» managed Russia's colonial colonies in California, Hawaii, and throughout Alaska. This building on Castle Hill was the location of the formal ceremony through which Alaska was transferred from Russia to the United States and was the seat of Alaska's American military government during the first years following the Alaska purchase. The site has been a territorial and a state historical park since the 1950s. In 1967, Castle Hill underwent substantial changes when the state constructed a trail and massive stone wall to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the transfer of Alaska from Russia to the United States. Unfortunately, no archaeological investigations took place at that time.

During another major renovation of the park in 1997— 1998 to improve accessibility, state archaeologists conducted substantial excavations at Castle Hill1. The earliest deposits at the site, associated with the Tlingit Indians, were radiocarbon dated to around 1,000 years ago. Research focused primarily on the overlying Russian era deposits, however, which are more broadly distributed across the site. The approximately 300,000 artifacts from these deposits constitute the largest, most diverse collection of 19th century Russian-American materials from any site in Alaska. The importance of the collection is enhanced by extraordinary preservation of textiles, hair, and other organic artifacts. This unusual preservation is believed to have been caused by slightly raised soil acidity, brought about by an abundance of spruce wood chips from Russian construction activities during the first quarter of the 19th century.

On a terrace near the base of the hill, the team uncovered ruins of four Russian buildings from the 1820s — 1830s period. These structures, once located within the main fortress of New Archangel, comprised a workshop complex where craftsmen applied the trades of coppersmithing, blacksmithing, shoe manufacture, firearm and instrument repair, coopering, and woodworking. Buildings 1—3, which clearly pre-date the influx of British ceramics that followed an 1839 trade agreement with the Hudson's Bay Company, are believed to be depicted in an 1827 illustration of Castle Hill by Baron von Kittlitz2. The chronological order and approximate ages of the building ruins were derived from mean ceramic dates, stratigraphic correlations, and structural superposition. Floor deposits, features, and artifacts suggest that Building 1 housed the workers, while Buildings 2 and 3 were workshops. Building 2, constructed in a post-in-ground chain-link style reminiscent of Siberian architecture, contained a metalworkers' forge made of bricks. A buried air duct, comprised of a hollowed timber, extended from the forge to a location outside the building. The floor deposit yielded evidence of sheet copper work, as well as the casting of copper or copper alloys. At the Russian-American Company settlement in the Kurile Islands, the Russian archaeologist Valery Shubin discovered a similar blacksmithing complex, including a rectangular, three room wooden house similar to Building 23. Along with Building 3, this shop also revealed evidence of industries such as wood¬working, gun repair, garment/shoe manufacture, and general equipment  repair.   Interestingly,   Khlebnikov  mentioned  that some of the buildings inside the fort were falling apart in 1830, including «workshops, blacksmith's shops, quarters for the shop workers and a metalwork shop»4. Building 4, largely destroyed by twentieth century gardening and trail construction, is believed to have been the last Russian building to occupy the site. It may have been a bathhouse indicated on the 1867 transfer map. Historic photos suggest that the last building on the terrace, possibly Building 4, was removed between 1894 and 1898.

Because Natives and Creoles comprised a large percentage of the Russian-American Company workforce, the artifact assemblage includes diagnostic projectile points, arrow shafts, basketry, ivory carvings and worked bone. Recent chemical studies have also linked obsidian projectile points from the Castle Hill workshops to sources near Fort Ross in northern California5. Historic accounts indicate that Alaska Natives (mostly Alutiiq speakers) were transported from Alaska to the RAC post at Fort Ross, then returned to Alaska after being in contact with California Pomo and Miwok Indians. In some cases, the company workers returned to Alaska with Pomo or Miwok wives. A very few California Indians from Fort Ross were also transported to Sitka as laborers for the Russian American Company6.

The Castle Hill excavations have given us a clearer understanding of the industries of early 19th century Russian America and the daily lives of the Sitka workers. The collection includes items related to food preparation, architecture, furniture, arms and munitions, clothing, personal activities, tobacco use, and work activities. Kitchen-related items such as ceramics and glassware make up a large percentage of the collection. Most of the features and artifacts in the workshop area represent the ancillary industries and domestic activities that supported the fur trade — the primary pursuit of the Russian-American Company. Direct evidence of fur processing is found in assorted fur/hair specimens collected from the soil at Castle Hill, along with lead bale seals used to secure the furs for shipment. Archaeologists recovered 30 lead seals from the workshop area, many of which bear Russian-American Company markings which document the source, type, and quality of furs7.

Notably, the assemblage includes a wide range of preserved organic artifacts from the workshop area and associated trash deposit. These include textiles, shoes, cordage, matting, basketry, leather goods, botanical materials, faunal remains, human and animal hair, and assorted wooden artifacts. Two complete Tlingit spruce root baskets were recovered, one of which is similar to museum examples of tightly woven stone cooking baskets. A collapsed woven grass basket still contained a large mass of salmonberry seeds. One of the more important artifacts from Castle Hill is a fragment of a rare Raven's Tail robe, made by the Tlingit Indians prior to about 1820. Numerous examples of cordage and rope, including cedar bark and spruce root specimens, were also recovered. Human hairs were common inclusions in the Castle Hill soil matrix, possibly due to the presence of a bathhouse, and may potentially contribute to a better understanding of diet and disease.
During the early 19th century, New Archangel was the largest and most cosmopolitan port along the Pacific Coast of North America. Despite an initial shortage of supplies, the settlement soon became a stopover for traders who also visited Europe, Asia, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), and other locations along the west coast of North America. The Castle Hill assemblage has caused us to re-think some of our preconceived ideas regarding trade relations and life in early 19th century Sitka. The archaeological record suggests that the material culture of working class employees of the RAC in Sitka was much more abundant and diverse than previously imagined. This is illustrated by the recovery of children's toys and luxury items such as doll parts, a carved wooden musket, miniature cannons from model ships, watch parts, samovar parts, and examples of hand-etched leaded glass tableware. The collection also has much more of a «Russian» flavor than indicated by artifact assemblages from other Russian-American Company sites in Alaska. This may suggest that the Russians in Sitka were not as dependent on goods obtained from British and American traders as previously believed. Distinctive Russian items in the collection include bottle seals, uniform accoutrements, Russian coins, and religious items. The collection also includes a ceramic assemblage of such size and diversity to cause a reconsideration of supply paradigms suggested by previous research. Thompson's analysis of Castle Hill ceramics indicates that Russian ceramics, rarely documented in North America, were a significant component of the collection and accounted for as much as 20—40 %8. Examples from many well-known factories were present.

The Castle Hill archaeological data document Sitka's multi¬national and multi-ethnic trade relations. For example, the assemblage includes coconuts and husk fibers from the Sandwich Island trade, bamboo, Japanese coins, British manufactured «Phoenix» buttons from Haiti, hazelnuts and American coins from trade along the west coast of the United States, tobacco pipes from both England and the Ottoman Empire9, and French gun parts10. The Castle Hill archaeological project has also provided insights on architecture, trade, industry, food preference, and consumer choice in Russian America. To date, the research potential of the collection has been only superficially explored.

KAD'YAK SHIPWRECK SITE

In 2003, a group of divers that included the author discovered remains of a ship believed to be the Kad'yak off Spruce Island, Alaska, at a depth of around 80 feet (24 meters). In 2004, a joint team of state, federal, and academic scientists conducted an underwater investigation of the Russian-American Company bark Kad'yak (1851-1860) off Kodiak Island, Alaska11. The Kad'yak is the only Russian-American Company vessel yet discovered and the oldest known shipwreck in Alaska waters. Its study also constitutes the first substantive underwater archaeological project in Alaska.
Built in the shipyards of Lubeck, Germany, for the Russian-American Company, the Kad'yak was fitted out in the port of Kronshtadt. It was from here that she sailed for Alaska in August 1851 on her maiden voyage. After a nine-month journey that included going around the southern tip of South America, she arrived at New Archangel in May 1852. At the time, the entire ocean-going fleet in service of the Russian-American Company consisted of ten vessels to which the Kad'yak was a major addition. During her service to the company, the Kad'yak took part in provisioning, trade and communications. Generally once a year, furs were brought to Sitka, then shipped either to St. Petersburg or the Siberian ports of Russia. Supplies and people were the main cargo of the company's ships on the return from Russia to Alaska. Starting in 1853 the Kad'yak's main destination was San Francisco, where she hauled ice for food refrigeration and other needs of the blossoming Gold Rush population. Although more than half of the ice melted during the journey, the trade was still profitable and the vessel could return with food and supplies for the colonies. A joint venture with a San Francisco banker was formed to exploit this new commercial avenue. Ice was collected from a lake near Sitka when possible. Because the mild winters there sometimes interfered with ice harvesting, however, Woody Island, near Kodiak, was an alternate choice. This was the situation in 1860.

As the vessel left Kodiak on March 30, 1860, with a full cargo of ice, she ran aground on a previously uncharted pinnacle of rock. The crew of twenty-five, under command of Captain Illarion 

Archimandritov, abandoned ship with no loss of life. After slowly drifting northward for several days and kept afloat by the cargo of ice, the Kad'yak came to rest in Icon Bay off Spruce Island. Here she lay undisturbed for over 140 years until discovered in 2003. The discovery was facilitated by the results of archival research by Anchorage archaeologist Michael Yarborough and new insights provided by Lydia Black on contemporary maps of the area. During the winter of 2003, East Carolina University (ECU) received funding from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) to study the wreck site. 

Prior to fieldwork, Evguenia Anichtchenko (at the time, an ECU graduate student) searched for relevant records in libraries and archives in Washington DC, St. Petersburg, Lьbeck and elsewhere. This turned up the Kad'yak's surviving logbooks and certificate of purchase, along with other important documents.

Field recordation of the wreck was conducted in July 2004 by a team of archaeologists representing ECU, as well as state and federal agencies. The author participated in a portion of the work. Assisted by local volunteers, the team documented the remaining hull structure, recorded significant objects, and mapped the entire site. Significant features and objects imbedded in the ocean floor include a ballast pile overlying hull remnants, cannons, anchors, and assorted ship's fittings. A few small items with particular diagnostic and interpretive value were collected. These included a brass bilge pump tube, hardware from the rudder assembly, a barrel stave, and small hardware items. Most importantly, the team recovered the hub from the ship's wheel inscribed with the name of the vessel. Those items that remain on the wreck site are protected against disturbance by state law. Eventually, the community of Kodiak hopes to collaborate with scientists to secure funds for further investigation and development of a museum exhibit.

AMERICAN-RUSSIAN COLLABORATIONS

In 2004-2005, studies initiated by Vladimir Tikhonov (Archi¬tectural-ethnographic museum «Talсi», Irkutsk) and Alexander Artemiev (Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok) in collabo¬ration with Ty Dilliplane and Dave McMahan focused on several colonial sites in central Siberia dating from the 17th through 19th centuries. This included a continuation of the important work of Oleg Bychov at the Tal'tsinka (Baranov-Laxman) glassworks12, and the chemical analysis of glass samples from Tal'tsinka and Russian colonial sites in Alaska. In 2005, the joint team also conducted minor test excavations at Tunkinsky Ostrog in the Buryat Republic. Continued work at Tunkinsky and similarly aged sites may eventually help us to better understand changes in supply caused by the creation and interruption of the 18th century Kiakhta trade. In conjunction with field investigations, the collaborators joined other Russian-American scholars in Ir¬kutsk for a series of formal discussions on continuing research opportunities. This led to the formation of the Joint Siberian Research Group on Russian America, later renamed Interna¬tional Association of Specialists on Studies of Russian America (IASSRA).

Following Artemiev's untimely death in late 2005, work has continued under sponsorship of the Talci Museum and the leadership of Artur Kharinskiy (Dean and Professor, Ir¬kutsk State Technical University). In 2006, under an NSF grant, the Russian and American collaborators held a series of workshops for museum staff and other scholars of Russian America at several historic communities in Alaska and Cali¬fornia. Significantly, this included participation by Alaska native groups whose histories are intertwined with Russian culture. In 2007, the Talci Museum and partner institutions in Russia and the U.S. organized the Third International Conference on Russian America in follow up to conferences held in Sitka more than 20 years ago. In 2007 and 2008, Russian and American archaeologists under the direction of Artur Kharinskiy conducted exploratory excavations outside the former headquarters building of the Russian American Company (circa 1800) in Irkutsk City13. Most recently, in Au¬gust 2009, exploratory excavations were conducted inside the historic customs compound or «tea exchange» at Kiakhta14. The Old Russian border city of Kiakhta, at the southern ter¬minus of the famous «Tea Road» between European Russia and China, was the only place where legal overland trade took place between the two countries throughout much of the 18th and early 19th centuries. It was hoped that findings would contribute to a better understanding of the Chinese border trade and associated durable goods that were transported to Russian America. While the archaeological work inside the compound produced negative results due to modern distur¬bance, the team was able to identify deposits along the Kiakh¬ta River that may be targeted for future work. Collectively, data from the Alaskan and Siberian sites may allow scholars to begin comparing the defining features of Russian colonial sites on the two continents.

EVOLVING RESEARCH TECHNOLOGIES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

The innovation of inexpensive research technologies, coupled with multidisciplinary approaches and large artifact assemblages from recent investigations, is beginning to enhance our archaeological interpretations of Russian America. For example, the discovery and recognition of Ottoman pipes (chibouks) from archaeological context both in Alaska and Russia in recent years suggest that there was more influence from the Ottoman Empire on material culture in the colonial Russian settlements than previously recognized. Also, Daniel Thompson has recently compiled a computerized encyclopedic key of ceramics found on Russian period sites in Alaska. As a result of the large sample size of Castle Hill ceramics, researchers assisted by the key are now able to identify Russian ceramic types that were previously indiscernible on American sites. It is hoped that the ceramic key can be refined with examples from similarly aged sites in Siberia.

New and inexpensive technologies for underwater exploration (for example, multi-beam and side-scan sonar, marine magnetometers, and more technologically advanced SCUBA equipment) have placed the discovery of long lost Russian shipwrecks within our reach. These are time capsules awaiting discovery. The innovations are a double-edged sword, however, in that those wishing to loot the wreck sites have access to the same technologies.

Global information system (GIS) technology, coupled with global positioning system (GPS) data and satellite or low altitude images, has enabled researchers to easily plot and examine the spatial distributions between historic archaeological sites. The Alaska Office of History and Archaeology (OHA), which maintains Alaska's statewide inventory of archaeological and historical sites, now has a GIS compliant database with records of around 30,000 archaeological and historic sites in Alaska. Another module of the system allows authorized users to query and access pertinent written reports in a digital format via the internet.

Field and laboratory instruments have also advanced significantly over the last two decades. Total station technology has also made the plotting of individual artifacts and features on sites quick and painless, allowing for computerized mapping and cluster analysis in the laboratory. Innovative remote sensing instruments, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR) units, are becoming cheaper and more readily available. Although still beyond reach for most archaeology budgets, this technology is increasingly being used for non-obtrusive survey on archaeological sites. For example, National Park Service archaeologists have recently used GPR data in an effort to locate the boundaries of the fort used by the Tlingit during the 1804 Battle of Sitka. In the laboratory, better and more readily available analytic instruments are beginning to help researchers understand the details of supply and technology in the Russian American settlements. For example, the late Alexander Artemiev was in the process of comparing glass samples from Siberia and Alaska via plasma spectroscopy. Hand-held instruments that can conduct non-obtrusive x-ray fluorescence analysis with the touch of a button are now readily available, albeit still expensive. The author has collaborated with chemists Claudia Brackett (University of California Stanislaus) and Julia Kleyman (Thermo Fisher Scientific) to analyze glass samples from Siberia and Alaska, as well as paint pigment from Castle Hill, via x-ray fluorescence with a hand-held (NITON) analyzer15. The portability, speed, and non-obtrusive nature of these instruments offer exceptional potential for sourcing studies. For example, Jeff Speakman (Smithsonian Institution) and Russian graduate student Natalia Slobodina (University of Alaska) used similar methods to match the obsidian projectile points from Castle Hill with sources near Fort Ross, California. Most recently, Buck Benson and Herb Maschner (Idaho State University) have conducted a pilot study on the chemistry of glass beads from Castle Hill by means of Photo Activation Analysis (PAA).

Archaeological survey and testing efforts over the last several decades have revealed the locations or potential locations of several important colonial Russian settlements that beg to be investigated. These include the settlements of New Russia (Yakutat), Ozerskoi Redoubt (Sitka), Redoubt St. George (Kasilof), and Redoubt St. Constantine (Nuchek). Many Native Alaskan contact period sites mentioned in the archival record of Russian America have yet to be discovered, and may potentially reveal information on trade and daily life. The new partnerships between Russian and U.S. scientists, coupled with evolving technologies and multidisciplinary approaches, offer potential for unprecedented archaeological research opportunities in the coming years.



Примечания:


1 McMahan, J. David (editor). Archaeological Data Recovery at Baranof Castle State Historic Site, Sitka, Alaska: Final Report of Investigations (ADOT&PF Project No. 71817/TEA-000-3[43]). Office of History and Archaeology Report No. 84, Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Anchorage. 2002.

2 Litke, Frederic. A Voyage Around the World 1826-1829, edited by Richard A. Pierce. First published 1834-1836 in Russian. Alaska History No. 29, the Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 1997.

3  Shubin, Valery O. Russian Settlements in the Kurile Islands in the 18th and  19th Centuries.  In Russia in North America:  Proceedings  of the  2nd International Conference on Russian America, edited by Richard A.  Pierce. P. 425-450. The Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario. 1990.

4 Khlebnikov, Kyrill T. Notes on Russian America, Volume 1: Novo-Arkhangel'sk, translated by Serge LeComte and Richard Pierce. The Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario. 1994. P. 139.

5 Slobodina, Natalia S. and Robert J. Speakman. Source Determination of Obsidian Artifacts from the Castle Hill Archaeological Site (Sitka, Alaska). University of Alaska Museum, Fairbanks, Alaska; Smithsonian Institution, Museum Conservation Institute, Suitland, Maryland. 2008.

6 Khlebnikov, Kyrill T. The Khlebnikov Archive: Unpublished Journal (1800-1837) and Travel Notes (1820, 1822, and 1824). Ed., with intro. and notes, by Leonid Shur, transl. John Bisk. University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks. 1990. P. 63.

7 McMahan, J. David. Lead Seals of the Russian-American Company: A Perspective from the Castle Hill Collection. Museum of the Fur Trade Quarterly, volume 39, number 3. 2003.

8  Thompson, Daniel. Chapter 8: An Analysis of Castle Hill Ceramics. In Archaeological Data Recovery at Baranof Castle State Historic  Site,  Sitka, Alaska:  Final Report of Investigations (ADOT&PF Project No.   71817/TEA-000-3[43]), edited by J. David McMahan. Office of History and Archaeology Report No. 84. Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Anchorage. 2002; Thompson, Daniel. Historical Ceramics of the 19th Century Russian American Company: Insights from the excavation of Castle Hill, Sitka, Alaska. Journal of the Taltsi Architectural and Ethnographic Museum, Irkutsk. 2007.

9  Petruzelli, Renee. Chapter 10: An Analysis of the Castle Hill Tobacco Pipes. In Archaeological Data Recovery at Baranof Castle State Historic Site, Sitka, Alaska: Final Report of Investigations (ADOT&PF Project No. 1817/TEA-000-3[43]), edited by J. David McMahan. Office of History and Archaeology Report No. 84. Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Anchorage. 2002.

10   Strunk,   Michael  and J.   David  McMahan.  Arms  and  Armaments.   In Archaeological Data Recovery at Baranof Castle State Historic  Site,  Sitka, Alaska:   Final  Report  of  Investigations  (ADOT&PF  Project  No.   1817/TEA-000-3[43]), edited by J. David McMahan. Office of History and Archaeology Report No. 84. Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Anchorage. 2002; McMahan, J. David and Michael Strunk. The Arms and Munitions of Russian America: A Perspective from the Castle Hill Site, Sitka, Alaska. Journal of the Taltsi Architectural and Ethnographic Museum, Irkutsk. 2007.

11 Anichtchenko, Evguenia. Ships of the Russian-American Company, 1799— 1867. MA thesis, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina. 2005; Cantelas, Frank, Timothy Runyan, Evguenia Anichtchenko, and Jason Rogers. Exploring the Russian-American Company Shipwreck Kad'yak. Report prepared for NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration, and National Science Foundation. Greenville. 2005; Anichtchenko, Evguenia and Jason Rogers. Alaska's Submerged History: The Wreck of the Kad'yak. State of Alaska Office of History and Archaeology, Anchorage. 2007; Rogers, Jason S., Evguenia Anichtchenko, and J. David McMahan. Alaska's Submerged History: the Wreck of the Kad'yak. Alaska Park Science: Scientific Studies in Marine Environments, U.S. National Park Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 2008. P. 28-33.

12 Litke, Frederic. A Voyage Around the World 1826-1829, edited by Richard A. Pierce. First published 1834-1836 in Russian. Alaska History No. 29, the Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. 1997.

13 Shubin, Valery O. Russian Settlements in the Kurile Islands in the 18th and 19th Centuries. In Russia in North America: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Russian America, edited by Richard A. Pierce. P. 425—450. The Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario. 1990.

14 Khlebnikov, Kyrill T. Notes on Russian America, Volume 1: Novo-Arkhangel'sk, translated by Serge LeComte and Richard Pierce. The Limestone Press, Kingston, Ontario. 1994. P. 139.

15 Brackett, Claudia, Julia Kleyman and J. David McMahan. Exploring Russian-American Trade through Comparison of Chemical XRF Signatures of Glass from Colonial Russian Sites in Alaska and the Tal'tsinka Factory in Central Siberia. Paper and poster presented at the 37th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Siena, Italy. 2008; Brackett, Claudia, Julia Kleyman and J. David McMahan. Exploring Russian-American Trade through Comparison of Chemical XRF Signatures of Glass from Colonial Russian Sites in Alaska and the Tal'tsinka Factory in Central Siberia. Paper and poster presented at ART-2008, the 9th International Conference, Jerusalem, Israel. 2008.

 

Russian America and Eastern Siberia: The materials of regional scientific practical conference with international participation (Kyakhta city, August 14 th, 2009). Irkutsk, 2011

Courtesy of Architectural-ethnographic museum «Talci»

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