An Overview of the Archaeology of Russian America: the Past, Present, and Future
J. David McMahan (Anchorage, Alaska, USA)
The rich history of daily life in Russia's colonial settlements in America and Russian interaction with indigenous cultures is poorly understood and has been only marginally addressed in school curricula and public interpretation. In the context of broader studies, there has been little attention to the archaeology and public interpretation of daily life in the 18th and 19th century settlements of Russian America. There has been a small but constant stream of published works. Still other important investigations are known among historical archaeologists in Alaska but left unpublished.
In 1979, the First International Conference on Russian America was held in Sitka, the former provincial capitol of Russian America. Due to the popularity of the conference as a forum for sharing the results of ongoing archival and archaeological work, another conference was held eight years later. The Second International Conference on Russian America was also held in Sitka. The proceedings of the second conference, published by the Limestone Press, constitute an important reference for those interested in Russian America. While the volume does not cover all contemporary studies on Russian, it includes papers on Russian-Native interactions, cartography, missionization, and archaeology. Now, two decades after the Second International Conference on Russian America, it is important to review the archaeological work that has been accomplished over the last several decades. This paper reviews some of the archaeological work directed at Russian American sites over the last three decades, discusses recent and ongoing work, and explores directions for future investigations.
ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE 1970s-1980s
The 1970s and 1980s saw several important studies. One of these was the small but important archaeological investigation of the late 18th — early 19th century Russian fur magazine (Erskine House) in Kodiak (Shinkwin and Andrews 1979). This building, one of the few Russian buildings that remain in Alaska, now houses as the Baranov Museum and Kodiak Historical Society. To supplement existing knowledge of the site, the Baranov Museum is presently planning for additional archaeological testing. Also, beginning in the late 1970s and continuing intermittently until 1983, Ty Dilliplane led excavations at the Middle Bay Brick Kiln site on Kodiak Island (Dilliplane 1981). Bricks were a scarce but necessary commodity in Russian America. The Middle Bay kiln, a “Roman style” kiln constructed around 1823, was used to fire bricks from clay mined adjacent to the site. Dilliplane's work revealed intact brick arches from the kiln structure, as well as ruins of adjacent work buildings. This is one of the few Russian industrial sites in Alaska that has been archaeologically investigated.
Other lesser known work includes the 1978 archaeological excavations by Dick Hsu and a team of National Park Service archaeologists around the Bishop's House in Sitka. The 19th century Bishop's House, former home of Bishop Veniaminov (later to become Saint Innocent of Alaska) is another of the few surviving Russian buildings in Alaska. Archaeological excavations beneath the floor and around the periphery of the building provided information that helped the National Park Service accurately restore the building for use as a museum. Additional testing was conducted around the Bishop's House and other nearby buildings in 1981 by Catherine Blee (Blee 1985). Blee returned to Sitka in 1983 to conduct the full scale excavation of a Russian hospital trash pit deposit believed to date from around 1860 (Blee et al. 1987). Her published quantitative analysis of the large quantity of well-preserved artifacts from the pit is an important reference for those wishing to understand how Russians adapted to a local environment far removed from sources of supply.
The 1980s also saw minor testing at several important Russian American archaeological sites, as well as Native Alaskan sites with Russian trade items. For example, Dilliplane's test excavations at the site believed to be the important 18th century settlement of New Russia (Nove Rossiysk), Yakutat, provides our only preview of the potentially rich archaeological material culture at the site. Other important work of the 1980s includes the work of Doug Veltre and Alan McCartney at Reese Bay, Unalaska Island (Bundy et al. 2003; McCartney 1984).
Significant archaeological work also was conducted outside Alaska during the 1980s. Glenn Farris, building upon earlier work in the 1970s, oversaw excavations at the Russian fur warehouse at Fort Ross, California (Farris 1983; 1990: 475-505). The Ross settlement was constructed in 1812 and was occupied by employees of the Russian-American Company for around 30 years. Russian archaeologist Valery Shubin excavated the Russian-American Company's Kurilorossiia settlement in the Kurile Islands, documenting a metalworkers' forge and building remains similar to those in Alaska (Shubin 1990: 430-433, 443). Despite close parallels with sites in the U.S., only an abbreviated version of Shubin's finings has been published in English.
ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE 1990s - Present
The decade of the 1990s saw several large-scale archaeological investigations, and innumerable smaller ones, that collectively have helped to shape our current understanding of Russian America. Outside Alaska, important work was continued at Fort Ross by Kent Lightfoot and his associates (1991, 1997, 1999). Lightfoot's work largely addressed ethno-history and the multiethnic Native settlement associated with the Russian fort. In Hawaii, Peter Mills conducted archaeological investigations at the site of Russia's Fort Elizabeth, constructed in 1816 on the island of Kauai (Mills 1996; 2002).
In Alaska during the 1990s, McCartney and Veltre, along with their students, continued to carry out survey and testing projects in the Aleutian Islands. Additionally they surveyed a number of eighteenth-and early nineteenth-century sites associated with fur seal hunting in the Pribilof Islands (Veltre and McCartney 2002). Another, small but intriguing, project consisted of the discovery and analysis of a skeleton from the City of Unalaska (McMahan et al. 1995). The skeleton, along with fragments of a wooden coffin, wrought iron nails and preserved head hair, was found by workers while excavating a ditch for a utility line. At the request of city officials, Dave McMahan and Joan Dale analyzed the remains prior to reburial. Their multidisciplinary analysis indicated that the skeleton was that of a Caucasian or Creole male around 30-40 years of age at the time of death. The coffin wood was microscopically identified as larch, commonly found as ships lumber on early Russian sailing vessels and suggesting an 18th century origin. Pollen grains were not found associated with any of the remains, despite an abundance of pollen in the grave fill, suggesting that the individual was probably buried during the winter. While the identification of the skeleton will never be known with certainty, its location matches that of a grave shown as that of “the navigator from Okhotsk” on a 1790 map.
One of the most important large-scale archaeological investigations of the last two decades was the work of Aron Crowell at Three Saints Harbor on Kodiak Island (Crowell 1997). The Three Saints Harbor settlement, founded by Grigorii Shelikhov in 1784, is considered to have been only the second permanent settlement constructed by the Russians in Alaska. This early isolated settlement was truly a frontier outpost. Crowell's work, which was preceded by testing at the site by Donald Clark during the 1960s, collected information on architecture and supply sources. Crowell interpreted the data in the context of current archaeological theory which focused on world economic models.
Another large-scale project of the 1990s was the excavation of the Afognak Artel site, circa 1790s-1840 by Katharine Woodhouse-Beyer, who oversaw the project for the Afognak Native Corporation. The excavations, conducted between 1994 and 1998, formed the basis for her doctoral dissertation (Woodhouse-Beyer 2001). Over 70,000 artifacts were recovered at the site, including 7,000 glass trade beads. Although some researchers have questioned whether this was actually the site of the artel or that of a smaller settlement, the collection is unquestionably a significant addition to our current data pool for Russian America.
More recent projects have included a re-analysis of Wendell Oswalt's (1980) Kolmakovskiy Redoubt artifacts by Erik Hilsinger (2002), ongoing testing of the Redoubt Saint Constantine site at Nuchek (Prince William Sound) by Laura and John Johnson of the Chugach Alaska Corporation, exploratory investigations at the possible site of Redoubt Saint George on the Kenai Peninsula by Alan Boraas, and the search for the landing site of the Bering Expedition in Southeast Alaska by Richard Dauenhauer and Russian colleagues.
THE VIEW FROM CASTLE HILL
Perhaps the most intensive excavations at a Russian American site to date are those which focused on Castle Hill, the site of the former administrative headquarters of the Russian-American Company in Sitka. These excavations, conducted during 1997-1998 by Dave McMahan and associates in conjunction with a planned park renovation, resulted in the recovery of over 300,000 artifacts (McMahan 1999, 2001, 2002a, 2002b, 2004). The bulk of archaeological work focused on a terrace near the base of the hill where deposits and structural remains from a Russian workshop complex were preserved. The team documented the ruins of four Russian buildings constructed within the 1820s and 1830s. These structures, once located within the main fortress of Novo-Arkangel, are believed to have been workshops and quarters for craftsmen engaged in copper smithing, blacksmithing, shoe manufacture, firearm and instrument repair, coopering, and woodworking. Natives and Creoles comprised a large percentage of the workforce, as substantiated archaeologically by the recovery of diagnostic projectile points, arrow shafts, basketry, ivory carvings and worked bone. Mean ceramic dates, stratigraphic correlations, and other data place the buildings in the same chronological order — all before influx of British wares that followed an 1839 trade agreement between the Russian-American Company and the Hudson's Bay Company. At least three of these buildings are believed to be depicted in an 1827 illustration of Castle Hill by Baron von Kittlitz (Litke 1987).
Of the four excavated building ruins, two are believed to represent workshops from circa 1820-1822. One of these buildings, constructed by a “post-in-ground” technique, contained the brick remnants a metalworkers' forge with a buried air duct. Residues from these two buildings indicate that both iron and copper-based metals were being worked. Specific activities included blacksmithing, casting of copper alloys, work with precious metals, and sheet copper work. Evidence suggests that the shop may have also served artisans engaged in industries such as wood-working, gun repair, garment/ shoe manufacture, and general equipment repair. Diagnostic artifacts from workshop activities include copper or copper alloy castings, sheet copper cups and bowls, copper rivets in various states of manufacture, and numerous handle lugs for the manufacture or repair of copper pots, along with other hardware and utensils.
The chain-link style architecture of the two workshop buildings resembles that which was widespread in 17th to 19th century Russian Siberian villages. A third building, with a preponderance of domestic artifacts and roughly contemporary with the buildings described above, is believed to have been living quarters for the shop workers. The fourth building ruin, largely destroyed by 20th century gardening and trail construction, is believed to have been the last Russian building on the terrace. It may have been a bathhouse that stood on the site into the early 20th century.
In addition to metal working, the craftsmen at the site were engaged in the manufacture and repair of company equipment and personal items. For example, evidence of shoemaking was abundant from the workshop floor and trash deposits (Grover 2002). One recovered boot bottom still contained a mass of grass that apparently served as insulation. Woodworking at the site is evidenced by the presence of gouges or chisels, a wooden mallet, and abundant wood chips in the soil. Partially finished quill tips in the deposits suggest that the workers were manufacturing writing quills from feathers — probably to be used by the company's clerks and managers. Numerous pieces of cut mica were also recovered, and were probably intended for use in candle lanterns. The range of textile fragments in the deposits, and the recovery of several thimbles, suggests that garments were being made or mended at the site. The vast majority of recovered textile fragments were of coarse wool, with buttonholes reinforced by linen threads (Grover 2002, 2007). Identifiable wool garments include a sock, a mitten, jacket collar, and sash.
The Castle Hill excavations have given us a clearer understanding of the industries of early 19th century Russian America and the daily lives of the Sitka workers. The collection includes items related to food preparation, architecture, furniture, arms and munitions, clothing, personal activities, tobacco use, and work activities. Kitchen-related items such as ceramics and glassware make up a large percentage of the collection. Most of the features and artifacts in the workshop area represent the ancillary industries and domestic activities that supported the fur trade — the primary pursuit of the Russian-American Company. Direct evidence of fur processing is found in assorted fur/ hair specimens collected from the soil at Castle Hill, along with lead bale seals used to secure the furs for shipment. Archaeologists recovered 30 lead seals from the workshop area, many of which bear Russian-American Company markings which document the source, type, and quality of furs (McMahan 2003).
Notably, the assemblage includes a wide range of preserved organic artifacts from the workshop area and associated trash deposit. These include textiles, shoes, cordage, matting, basketry, leather goods, botanical materials, faunal remains, human and animal hair, and assorted wooden artifacts. Two complete Tlingit spruce root baskets were recovered, one of which is similar to museum examples of tightly woven stone cooking baskets. A collapsed woven grass basket still contained a large mass of salmonberry seeds. One of the more important artifacts from Castle Hill is a fragment of a rare Raven's Tail robe, made by the Tlingit Indians prior to about 1820. Numerous examples of cordage and rope, including cedar bark and spruce root specimens, were also recovered. Human hairs were common inclusions in the Castle Hill soil matrix, possibly due to the presence of a bathhouse, and may potentially contribute to a better understanding of diet and disease. The enhanced preservation is probably due to raised soil acidity, the result of spruce wood chips in the soil.
During the early 19th century, the Sitka settlement was the largest and most cosmopolitan port along the Pacific Coast of North America. Despite an initial shortage of supplies, New Arkangel soon became a stopover for traders who also visited Europe, Asia, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), and other settlements along the west coast of North America. The Castle Hill assemblage has caused us to reconsider some of our preconceived ideas regarding trade relations and life in early 19th century Sitka. The archaeological record suggests that the material culture of working class employees of the RAC in Sitka was much more abundant and diverse than previously imagined. This is illustrated by the recovery of children's toys and luxury items such as doll parts, a carved wooden musket, miniature cannons from model ships, watch parts, samovar parts, and examples of hand-etched leaded glass tableware. The collection also has much more of a “Russian” flavor than indicated by artifact assemblages from other Russian-American Company sites in Alaska. This may suggest that the Russians in Sitka were not as dependent on goods obtained from British and American traders as previously believed. Distinctive Russian items in the collection include bottle seals, uniform accoutrements, Russian coins, and religious items. The collection also includes a ceramic assemblage of such size and diversity to cause a reconsideration of supply paradigms suggested by previous research. Thompson's (2002:85, 2007) analysis of Castle Hill ceramics indicates that Russian ceramics, rarely documented in North America, were a significant component of the collection and accounted for as much as 20-40 %. Examples from many well-known factories were present.
The Castle Hill archaeological data document Sitka's multi-national and multi-ethnic trade relations. For example, the assemblage includes coconuts and husk fibers from the Sandwich Island trade, bamboo, Japanese coins, British manufactured “Phoenix” buttons from Haiti, hazelnuts and American coins from trade along the west coast of the United States, tobacco pipes from both England and the Ottoman Empire (Petruzelli 2002), and French gun parts (Strunk and McMahan 2002; McMahan and Strunk 2007). The Castle Hill archaeological project has provided insights on architecture, trade, industry, food preference, and consumer choice in Russian America. To date, however, the research potential of the collection has been only superficially explored.
THE KAD'YAK SHIPWRECK ARCHAEOLOGICAL PROJECT
Of particular merit among scholars of Russian America is the recent entry of marine archaeologists. In 2003, the underwater wreckage of the Russian-American Company bark Kad'yak was discovered off Kodiak Island by a multi-organizational team armed with archival data and scuba gear. In 2004, supported by grants from the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and National Science Foundation, archaeologists from the State of Alaska, East Carolina University (including Evguenia Anichtchenko, from St. Petersburg), and NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary Program returned to the site to explore and document the vessel, which sank in 1860 (Cantelas et al. 2005). This was effectively the first archaeological documentation of a Russian-American Company shipwreck and the first substantive underwater archaeology project in Alaska. The National Park Service Beringian Heritage Program later awarded a grant to produce a report on the Kad'yak in English and Russian (Anichtchenko and Rogers 2007).
The Kad'yak, a three-masted bark constructed in Germany in 1851, was immediately put into the service of the Russian-American Company. After rounding the horn and sailing up the Pacific coast to Alaska, the vessel hauled goods between the Russian settlements in Alaska and occasionally made trading trips to the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii). In its final years of service to the company, the roughly 130-foot-long vessel was engaged in the lucrative ice trade. Ice cut from freshwater lakes in Sitka and Kodiak was packed in sawdust and shipped to San Francisco, which was still booming from the California gold rush. In 1860, nine years after being put into service, the vessel hit an uncharted rock near the Kodiak settlement. All on board escaped, but the vessel was a complete loss. At the time of the sinking, its captain was Illarion Arkhimandritov, a Creole and accomplished mapmaker. Local oral history holds that Arkhimandritov had neglected to fulfill his promise to venerate relics of the deceased monk, Fr. Herman (later St. Herman) in Kodiak Cathedral prior to his departure. The vessel's cargo of ice kept it afloat for several days, after which it came to rest in 80 feet of water in front of Fr. Herman's chapel on Spruce Island. The main mast is said to have protruded from the water like a great cross.
THE JOINT SIBERIAN-ALASKAN RESEARCH GROUP ON RUSSIAN AMERICA
It is a natural extension of Russian American research to begin examining ties to the Irkutsk region of central Siberia. Even though the far eastern provinces of Siberia are in much closer geographic proximity to Alaska, it was Irkutsk that provided the administrative and economic infrastructure for exploring and settling Russian America. In August 2004, Dave McMahan and Ty Dilliplane began collaborating with the late Alexander Artemiev and Taltsi Museum Director Vladimir Tikhonov on the archaeological investigation of a late 18th century glass factory co-owned by Alexander Baranov before he left Siberia for Russian America. The work was a continuation of research at the site during the 1990s by the late Oleg Bychkov, whose collaborators included Breck Parkman and other California archaeologists. One component of the glass factory research involves the chemical analysis of glass samples and comparison to specimens from Alaska sites. Archival records suggest that Baranov and glass chemist Erik Laxman established the factory in part to meet the urgent need for glass trade items in Siberia and Alaska (Bychkov 1997: 44). The need for more material sourcing studies is critical to understanding supply models for Russian America, especially with respect to factories in western Russia and Irkutsk (Crowell 1997: 226)
During 2005, McMahan and Dilliplane continued work with Artemiev at the glass factory, including the collection of ore samples from a remote location near Lake Baikal. They also conducted minor excavations at the site of the 1674 Irkut River settlement of Tunkinskiy Ostrog, in Buryatia. Continued work at this site, near the Mongolian border, may contribute to a better understanding of the Chinese border trade and provide for comparison with remote outposts in Russian America.
The most significant achievement from the Irkutsk collaborations was the formation of the Joint Siberian Alaskan Research Group on Russian America (JSARGRA), a consortium of Siberian and U.S. scholars interested in Russian America. JSARGRA was the culmination of round table discussions in Irkutsk in 2004-2005 in which a set of short and long term goals were proposed. These included continued work at the Baranov-Laxman glass factory, additional work at sites in Buryatia, archaeological testing around the standing circa 1800 Russian-American Company headquarters building in Irkutsk and collaboration on the development of a museum exhibit, cooperation in the eventual development of a “Museum of Russian America” in the headquarters building, the hosting of Irkutsk scholars in Alaska and California, and the organization of an international conference in Irkutsk. Some of the goals have been realized and others scheduled. In August 2006, with support from a National Science Foundation grant to the Alaska Historical Society, McMahan and Dilliplane hosted four Irkutsk scholars to participate in workshops at communities in Alaska and California. The Russians were Vladimir Tikhonov (Director, Taltsi Museum), Artur Kharinskiy (Dean and professor, Irkutsk State Technical University), Natalia Volkova (Director, Shelikhov Museum), and Yury Lihkin (Scientific Advisor, Taltsi Museum). At the workshops, participants explored ways in which local museums, scholars, and tribal organizations could collaborate with Russian counterparts on cooperative projects. Archaeological testing around the Russian American Company headquarters building, along with the Third International Conference on Russian America was scheduled for August 2007.
THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF RUSSIAN AMERICA: FUTURE DIRECTIONS
The list of investigations described above is far from all-conclusive, and omits many of the important studies of Native sites with Russian trade items from this period. Yet, these studies provide the foundation and set the stage for a “golden age of Russian American Archaeology”. Warming relations between Russia and the U.S. over the last two decades, along with the development of a Beringian Heritage International Park Program by the National Park Service, have promoted increasing cooperation between Alaskan and Siberian archaeologists on such topics as prehistoric human migration, trade, and cultural relationships in the Bering Strait region. Recent years have also seen collaboration on blockbuster museum exhibitions that have featured important Russian artworks, religious artifacts, and treasures of the royal family.
Recent investigations, such as those at Three Saints Harbor, Afognak, and Castle Hill have contributed to our understanding of daily life in Russian America. The data from these sites will also help with future interpretations of archaeological site data. For example, Daniel Thompson has recently compiled a computerized encyclopedic key of ceramics likely to be found on Russian period sites in Alaska. The key, available to researchers on CD from the Alaska Office of History and Archaeology, is based on an extensive ceramic data set from Castle Hill and other sites. The Office of History and Archaeology maintains the Alaska Heritage Resources Survey database, the official inventory of known archaeological and historical sites in the state. As the result of an ongoing data conversion project, it is now much easier to query the almost 30,000 records for information on known Russian sites and artifacts. A geographic information system (GIS) component allows the visual plotting of site data, and its export for use with Google Earth, ArcGIS, and other popular software. The data conversion project also includes a CITATIONS database that, when finished, will allow authorized researchers to access “gray literature” reports in a digital format via the internet.
Field instruments have also advanced significantly over the last two decades. Easily accessible digital satellite and low/medium altitude aerial images, coupled with global positioning system (GPS) and GIS technology, allow for accurate plotting of sites in the field and the easy visualization of spatial relationships. Total station technology has also made the plotting of individual artifacts and features on sites quick and painless, allowing for computerized mapping and cluster analysis in the laboratory. Innovative remote sensing instruments, such as marine magnetometers and ground penetrating radar (GPR) units, are becoming cheaper and more readily available. Although still beyond most archaeology budgets, this technology is being used successfully for non-obtrusive survey on archaeological sites. For example, National Park Service archaeologists have recently conducted GPR surveys in an effort to locate the boundaries of the fort used by the Tlingit during the 1804 Battle of Sitka. In the laboratory, better and more readily available analytic instruments are beginning to help researchers understand the details of supply and technology in the Russian American settlements. For example, the late Alexander Artemiev was in the process of collaborating with Dave McMahan and Ty Dilliplane to compare glass samples from Siberia and Alaska via plasma spectroscopy. Most recently, McMahan has collaborated with California chemist Claudia Brackett to analyze glass samples from Siberia and Alaska, as well as a paint pigment sample from Castle Hill, via x-ray fluorescence with a portable (NITON) analyzer. On another front, Brian Hoffman and McMahan (Hoffman and McMahan n.d.) are collaborating on a study of Japanese artifacts, particularly Edo Period coins, on Russian period sites in Alaska. In 2005, Dilliplane and McMahan joined Alexander Artemiev, Yury Lihkin, and other Russian archaeologists for minor testing at the site of the 1674 fort at Tunkinskiy in the Buryat Republic. Continued work in this region may eventually contribute to our understanding of the Chinese border trade and provide for comparison with remote outposts in Russian America.
Survey and testing efforts over the last several decades have revealed the locations or probable locations of several important colonial Russian settlements in Alaska that are largely uninvestigated. These include the settlements of New Russia (Yakutat), Ozerskoi Redoubt (Sitka), Redoubt St. George (Kasilof), and Redoubt St. Constantine (Nuchek). Still many other sites mentioned in the archival record of Russian America have yet to be discovered, and a wealth of information is potentially available from Native American contact period sites. The combination of warming relations between Russia and the U.S., innovations in technology and multidisciplinary collaboration have set the stage for unprecedented archaeological research. Focused work on any of these sites would enhance our understanding of various facets of life in Russian America.
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2007 The Arms and Munitions of Russian America: A Perspective from the Castle Hill Site, Sitka, Alaska. Journal of the Taltsi Architectural and Ethnographic Museum, Irkutsk.
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2002 Chapter 10: An Analysis of the Castle Hill Tobacco Pipes. In Archaeological Data Recovery at Baranof Castle State Historic Site, Sitka, Alaska: Final Report of Investigations (ADOT&PF Project No. 71817/TEA-000-3), edited by J. David McMahan, Office of History and Archaeology Report No. 84. Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Anchorage.
2002 Chapter 13: An Analysis of Faunal Remains from Castle Hill. In Archaeological Data Recovery at Baranof Castle State Historic Site, Sitka, Alaska: Final Report of Investigations (ADOT&PF Project No. 71817/TEA-000-3), edited by J. David McMahan, Office of History and Archaeology Report No. 84. Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Anchorage.
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2002 Arms and Armaments. In Archaeological Data Recovery at Baranof Castle State Historic Site, Sitka, Alaska: Final Report of Investigations (ADOT&PF Project No. 71817/ TEA-000-3), edited by J. David McMahan. Office of History and Archaeology Report No. 84. Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Anchorage.
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2002 Chapter 8: An Analysis of Castle Hill Ceramics. In Archaeological Data Recovery at Baranof Castle State Historic Site, Sitka, Alaska: Final Report of Investigations (ADOT&PF Project No. 71817/TEA-000-3), edited by J. David McMahan. Office of History and Archaeology Report No. 84. Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation, Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Anchorage.
2007 Historical Ceramics of the 19th Century Russian American Company: Insights from the Excavation of Castle Hill, Sitka, Alaska. Journal of the Taltsi Architectural and Ethnographic Museum, Irkutsk.
Veltre, Douglas W. and Alan P. McCartney
2002 Russian Exploitation of Aleuts and Fur Seals: The Archaeology of eighteenth- and Early-Nineteenth-Century Settlements in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. Historical Archaeology 36(3):8-17.
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Материалы III Международной научной конференции
«Русская Америка» (Иркутск, 8–12 августа 2007 г.)
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